Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique(573–634)
Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa, the ﬁrst caliph (r. 632–634), and a member of the clan of Taym of the tribe of the Quraysh, was the ﬁrst adult male convert to Islam, and the Prophet’s close companion. A merchant and an expert on the genealogies ofthe Arab tribes, Abu Bakr came to be known as al-Siddiq, the truthful, or the one who trusts, a reference to the fact that he alone immediately believed the Prophet’s story of his night journey to Jerusalem. Recognized even in Mecca as the foremost member of the Muslim community after Muhammad, he is credited with the purchase and release of several slaves, including Bilal, renowned for proclaiming the ﬁrst Muslim call to prayer. Abu Bakr was chosen by Muhammad to accompany him on his “ﬂight” or hijra to Medina in 622 C.E. He became Muhammad’s father-in-law when his young daughter, Aisha, married the Prophet. Taking the title Khalifat rasul Allah, meaning Successor to the Messenger of God, Abu Bakr became the ﬁrst caliph of Islam upon Muhammad’s death in 632 C.E. Just before his death, Abu Bakr refused to recall the expedition sent to Syria.
At the same time, he was forced to battle the wars of Apostasy, or Ridda, against the Yemen, Yamama, and the tribes of Asad, Ghatafan, and Tamim, who refused to pay the tithe or zakat, which was considered an integral part of accepting Islam. It was because of the death of many leaders during these battles that Abu Bakr, on the advice of Umar, ordered Zayd b. Thabit to compile a collection of the Quranic verses.